Geology 110
Exam 1 Study Guide

Last updated:  September 15, 2010
This study guide is ready for Exam 1, Fall 2010

 

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Vocabulary

carrying capacity
doubling rate
carbonate
chemical sedimentary rock
clastic sedimentary rock
cleavage
compound
crystalline
foliation
glass
hardness
igneous
lava
lithification
magma
metamorphic
mineral
Mohs hardness scale
native element
oxide
plutonic
regional metamorphism
rock
rock cycle
sediment
sedimentary
silicate
sulfate
volcanic
asthenosphere
brittle
compressive stress
continental drift
convergent plate boundary
divergent plate boundary
transform plate boundary
hot spot
island arc
lithosphere
plate tectonics
seafloor spreading
shearing stress
subduction zone
tensile stress
transform fault
aftershocks
body waves
creep
earthquake
earthquake cycle
elastic rebound
epicenter
fault
focus
intensity
liquefaction
magnitude
Modified Mercalli Scale
moment magnitude
precursor phenomena
P waves
Richter magnitude scale
seismic gap
seismic waves
seismograph
S waves
surface wave
tsunami

Concepts

What are the effects of current population and population growth rate on society and earth resources?

What is the world's current population?

What is the current rate of population growth?

At the current rate of growth, how long will it take for the earth's population to double?

What is the difference between silicate and non-silicate minerals?

Name some physical properties which are used to identify minerals.

Name a common mineral from each of the following mineral groups:

carbonates
sulfates
oxides
native elements

Which 3 rock types make up the rock cycle? 

How do igneous rocks form?  

What is the difference between plutonic and volcanic rocks?  which is typically stronger?

How do sedimentary rocks form?  

How do metamorphic rocks form?  

What is foliation?  name 2 foliated rocks

Are the following rocks plutonic, volcanic, sedimentary or metamorphic:

basalt
granite
sandstone
limestone
shale
slate
marble
foliated crystalline rocks

List 2 rocks that are composed primarily of the mineral calcite.

What are the differences between lithosphere and asthenosphere?

List several pieces of evidence which support of plate tectonics.

For each of the plate boundaries (divergent, convergent, and transform), know the following:

relative plate motion
presence or absence of volcanic activity
type of volcanic activity (if any)
presence or absence of deep (<100 km) earthquakes
environmental effects as discussed in class
examples discussed in class and text

 

How fast do tectonic plates move?

Differences between:
    focus and epicenter of  an EQ
    P, S, and surface waves  

How are epicenters of EQs located?

What is the difference between the intensity, Richter magnitude, and moment magnitude of an earthquake?  

What are typical hazards associated with earthquakes?  

Which type of building materials and land are the most/least hazardous during an earthquake?

What type of land is susceptible to liquefaction?

How do tsunami form, how fast do they move offshore, and what are typical tsunami heights onshore?

Areas of concern in the U.S. and the world  

How are the following used to predict earthquakes in the short term?

surface tilt, P and S wave velocity, well water depth and radon concentrations

How are the following used to forecast earthquakes in the long term?

seismic gaps, EQ cycle

What are the effects of fluids along faults and how was this observed in Denver, CO?