Geology 110
Exam 2 Study Guide

Last updated:  October 12, 2010
This study guide is ready for Exam 2

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In addition to the vocabulary and concepts below, you are also responsible for all material covered in lecture and all reading assignments listed on the syllabus. 


Vocabulary

Volcanoes

rift
ocean ridge
fissure
Iceland
East Africa
Columbia River flood basalt
subduction zone
stratocone, or composite, volcano
Ring of Fire
Hot Spot
Hawaii
Yellowstone
basalt
andesite
rhyolite
viscosity
silica (SiO2)
shield volcano
lava flow
pyroclastic material (bombs, cinders, ash)
ash fall
lahar
pyroclastic flow
volcanic gases
Lake Nyos
caldera
cinder cone
volcanic dome
sulfur dioxide
tsunami
Krakatau
monitoring
earthquakes
surface tilt or surface bulge

Streams

hydrologic cycle
drainage basin (watershed)
discharge
channel area
stream velocity
sediment transport
sediment load
sediment  capacity
gradient
headwaters
stream mouth
stream deposition
delta
alluvial fan
base level
lateral erosion
downcutting
flood plain
stream meander
stream bar
point bar
braided stream
flood
runoff
infiltration
permeable
stage
crest
upstream flood
downstream flood
lag time
flood recurrence
urbanization
zoning
retention ponds
diversion channels
channelization
levees
dams


Concepts

Volcanism

Identify volcanic sources and the type(s) of lava and volcanic landform(s) they generally produce.

    sources:  divergent plate boundaries, subduction zones, hot spots
    lava:  basalt, andesite, rhyolite

What are some differences between rhyolite, andesite, and basalt? (color, %SiO2, volcanic source)  

What is viscosity;  what factors control the viscosity of magma;  how does viscosity affect explosivity and type of volcanic landform?

Visually identify types of volcanic landforms:  shield volcanoes, stratocone volcanoes, cinder cone volcanoes, calderas, volcanic domes

Visually identify types of volcanic hazards:  pyroclastic flows, lahars  

Visually identify types of volcanic sources:  divergent plate boundaries, subduction zones, hot spots 

Which type of eruptive material (lava and/or pyroclastic material) makes up which type of volcanic landform?

Which volcanic hazards are associated with which type of volcanic landform.

Which type of  volcanic activity (magma type(s), eruptive material (ash/pyroclasts/lava), landforms, plate tectonics, and hazards) is associated with each of the following areas and/or volcanoes:

    Hawaii
    the Cascade volcanoes
    the Ring of Fire
    Iceland
    Mont Pelee
    Mt. Pinatubo
    Yellowstone
    the Aleutian Islands
    Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat
    Long Valley Caldera (disregard plate tectonic boundary for LVC)

What are the causes of mudflows?

Approximately how far away from Mt. Rainier did the Osceola mudflow travel approximately 5,700 years ago?  (Visit USGS Volcano Hazards Program)

How does volcanic activity affect climate?

How are volcanoes monitored and which volcanoes are currently being monitored (as mentioned in the text)?

Streams

What are the percentages of water in different reservoirs of the water cycle? 

What affects the velocity of a stream? 

How does velocity affect stream capacity and sediment sorting?

What causes streams to meander and in which direction do streams meander?

Which factors lead to increased run-off and flooding? 

What is the difference between an upstream flood and a downstream flood?

How would flood hydrographs differ between an upstream flood and a downstream flood;  between an urban area and a non-urban area?

How are flood recurrence intervals calculated? (i.e., what is meant by the 5-, 10-, or 100-year flood?) 

Why do people live in floodplains and what are the effects of floodplain development on:  flood stage height,  flood lag time, flood recurrence?

What are strategies for reducing flood hazards and how does each work? 


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