Geology 110
Exam 3 Study Guide

Last updated:  October 28, 2010

 

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In addition to the vocabulary, figures and concepts below, you are also responsible for all material covered in lecture and all reading assignments listed on the syllabus. 



Vocabulary

active margin
passive margin
barrier island
longshore current
beach face
berm
mean high tide
mean low tide
wave base
spring tides
neap tides
wave-cut platform
drowned valley
littoral drift
wave refraction
storm surge

angle of repose
creep
rockfalls
talus
slides
slumps
scarp
flow
debris avalanche
drain pipes
retaining walls

Coastal Zones

What percentage of the U.S. population lives in a coastal state?

What is the difference between an active and passive continental margin?

Which continental margin has a well developed continental shelf?  broad sandy beaches and barrier islands?  earthquakesocean trenches?  numerous coastal cliffs?

Where does sand on the beach come from?

Know the relative location of:  mean low tide, beach face, mean high tide, berm, dunes/cliffs

What causes tides?  When do spring and neap tides occur?

How are waves formed offshore and why do they break onshore?  What is the wave base, the wavelength?

What are causes of sea level change?  How would global warming affect sea level?

Would the East Coast or West Coast of the U.S. be more affected by a large rise in sea level?

How do wave cut platforms and drowned valleys form?

How do coastal structures (groins, jetties, etc.) affect longshore transport and deposition?

Be able to determine the longshore transport direction of littoral drift by looking at figures such as 7.16.

Why does wave refraction result in concentrated erosion of points and headlands?

What methods are used to prevent coastal erosion and what are their drawbacks?

How do dams affect coastal sediment distribution?

What is storm surge, how much can sea level rise onshore, and when is it most common?  (Table 7.1)

What is the air pressure in the eye of a hurricane (high or low)?  How does this affect sea level?

How are coastal hazards recognized?

What are the best settings for building near a beach or on an island?

How fast is sea level rising?

Mass Movement

What is the angle of repose?

Which materials hold the steepest slopes and least steep slopes?

How does the dip of rock layers affect mass movement processes?  Which rock types are typically layered?

What are the effects of fluids on mass movement processes?  What is frost wedging and in which type of climate is it most effective?

What are the effects of vegetation on mass movement processes? Which types of vegetation are most effective at reducing erosion?

How do people/urbanization sometimes increase the probability of mass movement?

What happened at the Vaiont Dam in Italy in 1963?

What are the different types of mass movement (creep, slides/slumps, falls, and flows) and how do they differ?

What are steps people can take to prevent or lessen the effects of mass movement?

In which type of rocks are rock bolt most effective are reducing mass movement?

How are mass movement  hazards identified?

Why are landslides common along the Puget Sound?

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